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STEEL GRADES - STEEL TYPES FAQ's
A36 Steel is a Standard Carbon Alloy Steel/Metal for Structural applications that possesses outstanding strength and formability properties. A36 Steel possesses the ability to be welded easily, machined and fabricated. A36 Steel grade is utilized most commonly for general use for both residential and commercial construction. The official standard, A36 was established by the ASTM International organization. S275 Steel is the European Steel Standard with comparable physical and chemical properties that are considered to be the equivalent to ASTM A36 Steel. The ASTM specification A36 applies to all foreign and Domestic Carbon Steel Plate,
Structural Steel shapes including Bars, Angles, Channels and Fabricated Beams, Welded, Riveted or Bolted together are employed in constructing Buildings, Bridges and most general structural construction for both residential and commercial applications. The specification A36, establishes a specifically required chemical composition and the mechanical properties of physical performance of this steel. The main elements used in the chemical composition of A36 Steel are carbon and manganese, these elements provide the molecular foundation for the physical-mechanical properties.
The additional elements contained within A36 Steel include phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, copper, nickel, chromium and vanadium. These elements, accurately combined and heated to over 3000 degrees Fahrenheit along with pure Oxygen, produces the molten steel that meets this A36 specification. The physical-mechanical properties of A36 require a minimum 36,000 psi, yield strength and a tensile strength of 58,000-80,000 psi. The yield strength measures the amount of stress of when the material begins to deform and bend. The tensile strength measures the amount of stress or load tension A36 Steel can withstand before elongating or pull apart. These physical-mechanical properties are maintained at temperatures up to 650 Degrees Fahrenheit. A36 is the most common steel used for steel fabrication in both commercial and residential construction, specifically where structural quality is required.
A572 Steel is a Standard High Strength Steel Low Alloy Structural Steel that possesses added elements that increase both its yield strength and tensile strength. The official standard, ASTM A572 was established by the organization ASTM International https://www.astm.org/. The specification A572 applies to both foreign and Domestic Carbon Steel Plate, Structural Shapes including Steel Bars, Steel Angles, Steel Channels as well as fabricated Steel Beams. A572 Steel can be welded, riveted or bolted for use in the more massive commercial construction including Buildings, Bridges and numerous other structural construction that calls for a higher Steel strength.
The A572 specification established by explicitly required chemical composition as well as physical-mechanical properties of performance. The principal elements employed in the chemical composition are Carbon and Manganese. These components provide a strong, stable molecular foundation that supports the A572 Steel's physical-mechanical properties. Additional elements include Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Niobium, Titanium, and Vanadium. Heated more than 3000 degrees Fahrenheit these combined elements of A572 Steel are combined with pure Oxygen, producing the molten steel, formed into the multiple varieties of Steel Plate and Structural Steel products.
The mechanical properties are also known as the physical properties of the specification A572 are determined by combining one of five different Steel grade specifications including Grades 42, 50, 55, 60 and 65, noted after the A572 to establish various Steel strength requirements. The Grade specification is directly relative to the minimum yield strength requirements. A572-G50 requires a minimum yield strength of 50,000 psi. and includes a minimum tensile strength of 65,000 psi. The yield strength measures the amount of stress load that the material can withstand before beginning to deform and bend. Tensile strength measures the amount of stress or load tension material can withstand before elongating or pulling apart. These mechanical properties are maintained in temperatures up to 650 Degrees Fahrenheit.
A709 Steel is a High Strength Steel Low Alloy Structural Steel utilized for bridge construction that possesses added factors that increase both its yield strength and tensile strength. The official standard, ASTM A709 Steel was established by the organization ASTM International. The specification A709 applies to every foreign or Domestic Carbon steel Plate, Structural Steel shapes including Steel Bars, Steel Angles, Steel Channels as well as fabricated Steel Beams or welded, riveted or bolted for use in Bridge construction. This specification also demands an impact test, known as a "Charpy V-Notch" test employed for non-fracture and fracture critical properties. The Charpy V-Notch test verifies and confirms that the material is not brittle nor is it susceptible to any impact cracking or fracturing. The steel specification A709 Steel validates a specifically required chemical composition as well as set physical-mechanical properties of performance. The main elements used in the chemical makeup are Carbon, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon, Copper, Chromium, Nickel, Niobium, Vanadium and Titanium. These combined elements are subsequently heated to over 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. Pure Oxygen is added to the mix along with the chemicals as mentioned above, resulting in the production of molten steel.
Identifying the mechanical properties of the specification A709 is determined by combining one of seven different grade specifications such as Grades 36, 50, 50S, HPS 50W, HPS 70W and HPS 100W noted after the A709 to establish various strength requirements. The Grade specification is directly relative to the minimum yield strength requirements. Yield strength measures the amount of load that the material can withstand before beginning to bend and deform. Tensile strength measures the amount of stress tension material can withstand before elongating or pull apart. A709-G50 would require minimum yield strength of 50,000 psi. furthermore, a minimum tensile strength of 65,000 psi. The "W" that is observed within this grade symbolizes a higher corrosion resistance as a result of the increased corrosion elements included such as the Copper, Chromium, and Nickel. Mechanical properties are maintained in temperatures up to 650 Degrees Fahrenheit.
A588 Steel is a High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel, used in the construction of bridges and buildings. This steel possesses additional elements that produce high yield and tensile strengths as well as offering a high corrosion resistance to all types of weather conditions. The official standard, ASTM A588 was established by the organization ASTM International extends the same strength as A572 but with enhanced corrosion resistance when weathering the elements. An equivalent grade is Corten Steel, with a registered trademark name of United States Steel Corporation. The specification A588 applies to all foreign and Domestic Steel Plate as well as Structural shapes including Angles, Channels, Flat Bars, and Beams, that are fabricated, welded, riveted or bolted for use in mostly Bridge construction. Also employed in other similar applications A588 Steel is regularly used in the fabrication of structural steel buildings, railcar equipment and is well suited for use in shipbuilding. Outdoor structures and those that are regularly exposed to the elements are well suited to incorporating, as A588 Steel remains one of the best alternatives for finished structures.
This grade of steel is also known as and frequently referred to as "Weathering Steel" and can withstand the exposure to most weather conditions and elements. A588 Steel resists corrosion substantially better than standard Carbon Steel grades due to its chemical composition. A588 Steel was developed initially to eliminate the need for continuously having to be painted. This weather resistant steel can be left bare or uncoated as exposing it to atmospheric weather conditions allows for a protective rust-like layer to form, thereby shielding the steel from the weather and elements. As time passes by, the metal oxidizes and rusts, creating more of a protective barrier furthering slowing any corrosion.
The standard specification for this material requires a specific chemical composition and mechanical properties of performance. The main elements used in the chemical composition are Carbon, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Niobium, Molybdenum and Vanadium. The mechanical properties require a minimum 50,000, psi yield strength as well as a minimum tensile strength of 70,000 psi.
A992 Steel is high strength alloy steel for structural applications in steel construction. The official standard, ASTM A992 was established by the organization ASTM International https://www.astm.org/. In recent years this standard specification for structural shapes has replaced the former specification standard for A36 and A572-50 and is still most commonly employed in structural steel fabrication.
The specification A992 steel applies to every Foreign and Domestic Carbon Steel Structural Shape. The A992 structural steel shapes incorporate everything from I-Beams and Channels that are being fabricated, welded even riveted or bolted. A992 is often employed in for use in massive heavy duty commercial construction including Buildings, Bridges and other numerous structural steel construction projects that require higher strength steel. The specification standard establishes a specifically required set of chemical composition as well as mechanical properties of performance. The principal elements applied in the chemical composition of this A992 Steel are Carbon, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon, Copper, Nickel, Chromium, Niobium, Titanium & Vanadium. This steel's mechanical properties require a minimum yield strength of 50,000 psi and a minimum tensile strength of 65,000 psi. Physical properties of this steel are maintained in temperatures of up to 650 Degrees Fahrenheit.
A514 Steel is a High Strength Alloy steel that is quenched and tempered and is particularly well suited for use in welding and machining fabrication. A514 Steel, also known as T-1 steel, trademarked by the worlds largest steel producing company ArcelorMittal Corporation, A514 Steel Plate is remarkably strong.
Principally employed in commercial construction, utilization of this standard low carbon grade of A514 Steel use is warranted where steel fabrication of high strength and low weight are crucial. Prime use examples of A514 Steel are in Architectural Buildings, Bridge Frames, Cranes, Truck Frames as well as construction machinery parts that are subject to extraordinary wear and impacted by abrasive applications such as excavating machines. The standard specifications of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, are set by the ASTM International organization and applies to all Foreign and Domestic steel plate. This steel material A514 Grade has yield strengths of at least 100,000 psi and tensile strengths between 110,00-130,000 psi. This material grade is tough and does present fabrication challenges because of its high strength.
A500 Steel grade is a standard designation for cold-form welded and Seamless Carbon Steel structural tubing. A500 Steel has an established chemical composition and mechanical properties set forth by the ASTM International organization and applies to all foreign and Domestic steel tubing. These structural steel tubes are fabricated and typically used for Structural Steel Columns, Steel Frames, Steel Supports, Steel Roll Cages and numerous other generally widely used structural applications throughout the United States and North America.
This A500 Steel grade specification applies to all foreign and Domestic steel tubing and has four different grade levels for different strength requirements for different shapes, including; round, square and rectangle tubing. Typical chemical elements are Carbon, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, and Copper. Yield strengths on square steel and rectangular steel tubing are between 46,000-50,000 psi, and tensile strengths range between 58,000-62,000 psi.
AR400 Steel is very hard and durable metal, it resists abrasion and withstands high impacts, it's significantly better than a standard A36 steel plate. "AR" Steel stands for Abrasion Resistant, and this High Strength Low Alloy steel grade is considerably harder than standard Carbon Steel, with a Brinell hardness range of 360-440 BHN (Brinell scale). Fabrication of AR400 material grade has limitations due to the high strength this metal offers. The chemical composition is a medium Carbon low alloy mixture, with essential added elements such as Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum, and Nickel. These elements combined with quenching and tempering create an increase in material hardness and impact resistant surface. AR400 Steel is particularly desirable for use in high wear, high impact, and abrasive wear situations such as in dump truck bed liners and snow plows. Often utilized and included AR 400 is incorporated in heavy pieces of machinery such as Excavating Buckets, Bulldozers, and Mining equipment.
AR400 steel is High Strength steel that possesses physical properties for items in need of yield strength of approximately 155,000 psi and tensile strengths around 180,000 psi. This extraordinarily durable steel maintains its high strength and wear ability properties even at high temperatures. AR400 is much more difficult to form or bend and or machine because of its high strength. The use of steel such as AR400 maintains a high level of Abrasion resistance and is therefore not intended for use in structural steel applications due to its lack of flexibility and fracture toughness.
Corten Steel is also known as Weathering Steel, as it is resistant to outdoors and weather. This material grade was created to eliminate the necessity for painting and protects against outdoor weather conditions. Corten Steel contains additional elements such as Copper, Nickel, and Chromium, combined they form a metal that resists atmospheric corrosion significantly better than standard Carbon Steel.
Corten fabrication means that the steel is malleable, easily bendable, weldable as well as machinable. The name “COR-TEN” is a registered trademark of United States Steel Corporation (USS). The ASTM International has designated this steel as a "Grade." The most recent comparable grade weathering steel is ASTM A588 and A709-50W. Weathering steel reacts and oxidizes/rusts like standard carbon steel but is different, different due to the added corrosion resistant elements. Over time the surface of Corten Steel oxidizes and forms a layer of rust, as additional time passes further oxidation/rust occurs by adding an even thicker layer of rust. The oxidation and rust process of Corten Steel acts as a continuing barrier to the weather conditions, similar in effect to the way paint slows the oxidation process.
High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA) has better overall mechanical characteristics and is more immune to the weather than conventional Carbon Steel due to added alloy components. High Strength means an increased strength with yields strengths from 36,000-86,000 psi, and tensile strengths that vary between 60,00-100,000 psi.
HSLA steel is a metal that's utilized in numerous types of steel fabrication applications. HSLA Steel differs from most other metals due to its composition, and it performs to specific mechanical properties instead of a particular structure of chemicals to maintain good weldability and formability. HSLA steel has a consistent carbon content of .05 through .25%. Other alloy elements included in the composition of HSLA other than just the standard Carbon and Manganese are Copper, Nickel, Niobium, Vanadium, Chromium, and Titanium. This combination of alloy elements provides increased resistance to surface oxidation due to atmospheric. These named conditions add to the desirability of HSLA and desirability where strength and corrosion resistance are demanded. The combination of elements is used to affect and change the microstructure of the steel thereby producing a very fine distribution of the alloy carbides that ultimately increases the overall strength of the material.
Some examples of High Strength Low Alloy Steel grades are A572, A588, and A709. HSLA steel is excellent for fabricating very strong, lightweight products such as truck and automobile metal parts.
Produced to standard specifications for mechanical properties as well as chemical properties. The ASTM International group regulates each of the various fabricated types of distinct steel shapes. The different structural steel shapes include Steel I-Beams, Wide Flange Steel Beams, Steel Channels, Metal Angle Iron, both Square and Rectangular Hollow steel tubing and Steel Plate.
Each of these various shapes are produced to standard dimensions and are employed primarily in load-bearing framing applications. The various steel shapes are either Fabricated, Welded or Bolted together, and utilized in the construction of Buildings, and Bridges. Structural Steel is likewise employed in Heavy Machinery and other manufactured products that require higher strength than other available metal materials.
Steel I-Beams are used mostly in buildings as the main frame of the structure, customarily fabricated as Square Steel Beams, Rectangular Steel Tubing that is utilized as Steel Columns in buildings as well as Steel Angles and Steel Channels that are employed in the construction of metal stairs and staircases for use throughout these buildings.
Most everywhere you look and go, you'll notice multiple structures, signs, buildings, and equipment all of which have been fabricated from Structural Steel or that contain Structural Steel.
It is a necessity that a certified architect-engineer determine the proper steel requirements and steel grades for each specific project and use case.
A36 Grade Steel is a Structural Quality Steel, frequently employed for use in general construction. A572-50 which is a High Strength Low Alloy Steel that is most commonly used when higher strength is required, such as in heavy construction.
A709-50, which is a High Strength Low Alloy Steel and is an ASHTTO specification, is mainly used in Bridge building and Heavy construction.
A992 which is a structural steel beam and channel specification is the one most often used.
Rebar or Reinforcing Bar it's shaped is round and is composed of Carbon Steel. Reinforced Steel/Rebar surface is a pattern of raised ridges and or jagged lines that enable an excellent level of grip and adherence to poured masonry concrete. Concrete is significantly affected by fluctuations in temperatures, moreover expands and contracts with these variations. Steel Rebar and concrete expand and contract almost at the same rate, this combination gives them the ability to stay together so well, ultimately resulting in a stronger completed structure.
Rebar, when added to the center of a poured concrete structure, at times as fabricated Re-bar Cage, the Rebar creates further stability and increased strength helping in the distribution of the force loads after the concrete hardens. Steel fabrication of rebar plays a significant role in creating added stability within concrete structures and is employed in various applications for commercial construction.
An additional conventional reinforcing steel is small diameter carbon steel rods that are manufactured into sheets of wire mesh. These wire mesh sheets are utilized in other poured concrete applications, such as sidewalks to increase strength further and add additional stability.
Diamond Plate, also known as Checker Plate, Floor Plate, Tread Plate, and Safety Plate is a flat metal or steel plate with a raised pattern of lines or elongated diamonds on the surface of one side. These differing metal plates are generally composed of Carbon steel, Stainless Steel or Aluminum.
A786 is the Standard grade of steel diamond plate. This raised pattern can vary in design and size depending on how they are manufactured or fabricated. The pattern is a limiting factor slipping issues on surfaces, making it very desirable steel flooring for Steel Stairs Treads, Steel Platforms, Metal Walkways and Metal/Steel Industrial flooring applications. This raised texture and look are desirable for use in Decorative Architectural Facades, Decorative Panels and Decorative Wall Panels.
Aluminum Diamond plate has a bright shiny finish often employed in various applications for trucks, truck accessories and truck utility toolboxes.
Stainless Steel Diamond Plate is used in many food grade industrial warehouses as well as in maritime construction due to its high corrosion resistance properties.
Standard Carbon Steel Diamond Plate is utilized in many applications including use for industrial stairs and staircases and walkway cover plates.